Loop tiling, as one of the most important compiler optimizations, is beneficial for both parallel machines and uniprocessors with a memory hierarchy. This book explores the use of loop tiling for reducing communication cost and improving parallelism for distributed memory machines. The author provides mathematical foundations, investigates loop permutability in the framework of nonsingular loop transformations, discusses the necessary machineries required, and presents state-of-the-art results for finding communication- and time-minimal tiling choices. Throughout the book, theorems and algorithms are illustrated with numerous examples and diagrams. The techniques presented in Loop Tiling for Parallelism can be adapted to work for a cluster of workstations, and are also directly applicable to shared-memory machines once the machines are modeled as BSP (Bulk Synchronous Parallel) machines. Features and key topics: Detailed review of the mathematical foundations, including convex polyhedra and cones; Self-contained treatment of nonsingular loop transformations, code generation, and full loop permutability; Tiling loop nests by rectangles and parallelepipeds, including their mathematical definition, dependence analysis, legality test, and code generation; A complete suite of techniques for generating SPMD code for a tiled loop nest; Up-to-date results on tile size and shape selection for reducing communication and improving parallelism; End-of-chapter references for further reading. Researchers and practitioners involved in optimizing compilers and students in advanced computer architecture studies will find this a lucid and well-presented reference work with numerous citations to original sources.
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The Apollo Guidance Computer The technological marvel that facilitated the Apollo missions to the Moon was the on-board computer. This is the first book to fully describe the Apollo guidance computer’s architecture, instruction format and programs used by the astronauts. Full description
One of the currently most active research areas within Artificial Intelligence is the field of Machine Learning. which involves the study and development of computational models of learning processes. A major goal of research in this field is to build computers capable of improving their performance with practice and of acquiring knowledge on their own. The intent of this book is to provide a snapshot of this field through a broad. representative set of easily assimilated short papers. As such. this book is intended to complement the two volumes of Machine Learning: An Artificial Intelligence Approach (Morgan-Kaufman Publishers). which provide a smaller number of in-depth research papers. Each of the 77 papers in the present book summarizes a current research effort. and provides references to longer expositions appearing elsewhere. These papers cover a broad range of topics. including research on analogy. conceptual clustering. explanation-based generalization. incremental learning. inductive inference. learning apprentice systems. machine discovery. theoretical models of learning. and applications of machine learning methods. A subject index IS provided to assist in locating research related to specific topics. The majority of these papers were collected from the participants at the Third International Machine Learning Workshop. held June 24-26. 1985 at Skytop Lodge. Skytop. Pennsylvania. While the list of research projects covered is not exhaustive. we believe that it provides a representative sampling of the best ongoing work in the field. and a unique perspective on where the field is and where it is headed.